A two-day international seminar on ‘Social Justice Policies of Modi Government’ was organised by Satyawati College (University Of Delhi), Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Chair in Social Justice (IIPA) and Centre For Policy Research and Governance on November 16,17.
The welcome address was given by Prof. Sheela Reddy (Dr. Ambedkar Chair in Social Justice, IIPA). She introduced the panel members and invited the chief guests to inaugurate the Seminar.
• Inaugural session
Dignitaries present for the inaugural session included Dr Vinay Sahasrabuddhe, MP Rajya Sabha and Chairman, ICCR, New Delhi, Shri Bhagwan Lal Sahni, Chairman, National Commission for Backward Classes, New Delhi, Shri SN Tripathi (IAS), Director, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi, Prof C Sheela Reddy, Dr Ambedkar Chair in Social Justice, IIPA, New Delhi and Dr Swadesh Singh, Satyawati College, Delhi University, Delhi.
The inaugural session began with the lighting of the lamp ceremony by Dr Vinay Sahasrabuddhe, Shri Surendra Nath Tripathi, Shri. Bhagwan Lal Sahni and Dr. Swadesh Singh.
Following the ceremony, Shri. S.N. Tripathi felicitated Dr Vinay Sahasrabuddhe, Shri. Bhagwan Lal Sahni and Dr Swadesh Singh by presenting “IIPA ANGVASTRAM” to them.
Prof. C. Sheela Reddy gave a brief introduction of Dr. Ambedkar Chair in Social Justice IIPA. She said that IIPA is a unique institution where bureaucrats receive mid-service training and having an Ambedkar Chair in such an institution makes it even more important and relevant. She said that the purpose of this Chair is to reinforce the philosophy and ideas of social justice. She delved into Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya’s vision of Antodaya and spoke about its relevance. She outlined that the overall agenda of the seminar was to enable exchange of views and to come up with solutions to effectively resolve contemporary problems and challenges. Towards this end she once again welcomed all eminent speakers and thanked the organisers of the seminar.
❖ Speakers of Inaugural Session
• Shri S.N. Tripathi (Director, IIPA)
Addressing the seminar, Shri S.N. Tripathi said that equality and welfare is a part of India’s Preamble yet we are a long way from ensuring social justice. He said that there still exists a huge gap between people with problems like inequality and untouchability among other social evils that are vitiating the environment of our society. He said that the slogan ‘Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas, Sabka Vishwaas’ can play a lead role in curtailing and preventing such social evils. He added that as a bureaucrat, he understood the importance of and appreciated the policies of social justice under the Narendra Modi-led government.
• Shri Bhagwan Lal Sahni (Chairman, National Commission for Backward classes)
In his presentation Shri Bhagwan Lal Sahni said that the current government is relentlessly working to protect and promote Indian culture and traditions. He said that while there was no concept of inequality in Indian tradition, the terms and concepts of inequality were brought in the wake of the colonial rulers’ policy of divide and rule. He congratulated the government for remarkable schemes such as Ujjawala Yojna and Sakanya Samriddhi Yojna, among others. He also mentioned the development of rural areas and its impact on social justice. He focused on Kaushal Vikas Kendras and Mudra Yojna to explain how marginalized groups were not only being provided direct employment but also a financial base for entrepreneurship. He also dwelt on the remarkable efforts being made for the Schedule Tribes. He said that while reservation has helped to tackle the material side of social inequality, the key problem of mentality and prejudice still exists as people continue to follow untouchability and carry ideas of stigma.
He said that the culture of India, since prehistoric times, has revolved around welfare of people, environment, ecosystems and other living beings. Unfortunately, over the years the oneness of this cultural heritage has been lost. He said that as the society is moving forward it is also getting further and further away from its cultural roots. He said it is crucial that the coming generations should get reconnected to their cultural identity which is anchored in social justice and communal harmony. India was once recognised as the ‘Vishva Guru’ and the world came here for guidance and knowledge, and now the time has come once again to resurrect that identity. He said that in this journey towards rediscovery, Hindi must be adopted as a language with proven scientific temperament that looks towards future and draws from roots that unite our glorious past.
• Dr. Swadesh Singh, Satyawati College, University of Delhi
Dr. Swadesh Singh started his address by defining Politics in terms of Social Justice which is Authoritative Allocation of Resources. He said that social justice policies of the government led by Prime Minister Narendra are making the way for efficient allocation of resources. He said the government is taking various initiatives to ensure social justice in the society. He spoke about the policy and approach behind identification of 115 Aspiring Districts. Talking about the challenges of Dalits, Economically Weaker Sections and Tribals, he discussed the troika of JAM - Jan-Dhan-Mobile-Aadhar and Direct Bank Transfer (DBT). He said that the aim of the two-day seminar was to critically discuss the policies and to identify new approaches, targets and outcomes. He said that the platform of the Seminar was open for the discussion, suggestions and innovations for new and effective ideas.
• Dr. Vinay Sahasrabuddhe (Chairman, Indian Council For Cultural Relations and Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha)
In his speech Dr. Vinay Sahasrabuddhe said that social justice is the prominent theme of Indian academics. He congratulated the organisers for arranging an open discussion on this topic of great contemporary importance. He drew attention towards substantial steps taken by the present government towards countering social injustice. These steps include allocation of independent departments for the Schedule Tribes, Children and Women. Earlier, these were included within the HRD ministry but now both the department have their independent mechanisms and functioning. He said that the philosophy of the government is based on the principle of Antyodaya. He said while the Right to Education Act had existed since the time of previous government, what was lacking was the ground setup to implement it. He said that now the government is doing the needful towards getting a positive impact over literacy rates. Other than the Right to Education Act, he also talked about Indira Awas Yojna, Nirmal Bharat Yojna and Rajiv Gandhi Vidyutva Yojna. He said that the present government has taken significant steps that have resulted in tremendous improvement of social welfare institutions. He also spoke about achieving 24*7 electricity for primary health centers. At last he emphasized that the work of the government is no more remains only on files but it is actually reaching the ground level infrastructure. He added that the opportunity of equal participation and social justice is lagging behind which needs to be corrected soon.
After the formal addresses, Dr. Swadesh Singh presented mementos to Mr S.N Tripathi, Mr Bhagwan Lal Sahni and Dr. Vinay Sahasrabuddhe. Following the felicitation ceremony Prof. Sheela Reddy gave vote of thanks in which she showed her gratitude to all the eminent speakers, paper presenters, participants and staff of IIPA for making the inaugural ceremony successful.
Plenary Session – 1
Plenary Session – 1 was chaired by Dr. Vandana Mishra (Assistant Professor, JNU). At the opening of the session Dr. Vandana Mishra welcomed eminent speakers Prof. Nicholas Gravel, Prof. Badri Narayan, Prof Sushma Yadav and Shri SN Tripathi by presenting them with mementos. Following this Dr. Swadesh Singh presented memento to Dr. Vandana Mishra.
Prof. Sheel Reddy welcomed Mr. Surendra Tripathi, Chairman, IIPA by presenting him with a Momento and Dr. Sheela Reddy also presented a memento to Prof. Shusma Yadav and formally welcomed her to the seminar.
• Prof. Nicholas Gravel (CSH Delhi)
In his presentation, Dr. Gravel focused on education and literacy rate in India. He shared statistics showing the literacy rate of men and women among various castes during 1994 as compared to 2011. It illustrated literacy rates across major religions in India - Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Jains and others. He said that there are various religions in India and all have their own studies. The need today is to equalize educational opportunities in society. Indian religions also have sub-religions and castes within them. An adult must be free to choose his /her religion according to their choice. He also shared the literacy data of 2012 which shows a positive growth. Towards the end of his presentation he said that in the current scenario there is a need to reduce inequalities in educational opportunities and to concentrate on literacy of women.
• Prof. Badri Narayan, Director, Govind Ballabh Pant Social Science Institute, Prayagraj
Prof. Badri Narayan’s presentation dwelt on the ground situation in terms of social justice. He said that while the concepts and ideas of social justice were being discussed in the seminar hall, those in need of it don’t even know what social justice is. The deprived section of society is only aware of terms like izzat, bhagidari and garima. He said that while democracy brings aspirations, it also brings disappointments. He said that the current government is trying its level best to meet the aspirations of the people. People have supported Modi not because they get something but because they are expecting that this government will not leave any stone unturned in uplifting their lives. He shared his experience with people in Mushar, Dalipur in Uttar Pradesh. In this village there are 60 families out of which 12 have pakka houses. The remaining families are hoping that government will provide them also with pakkahouses. This is the aspiration that people have from the government. He said that the framers of constitution gave State the subject of social justice and today Modi government is visualizing that social justice phenomenon. He also shed light on the caste politics. Congratulating the government for the its continuous efforts towards ensuring social justice, he also drew focus towards advent of smart technology which has made people more aspirational.
• Prof. Sushma Yadav, Vice Chancellor, Bhagat Phool Singh University, Sonipat
Prof. Sushma Yadav said that while education system is expanding private players are increasingly engaging in education market leaving little room for social justice. She said that the real beneficiaries of the social justice polices are not aware of their rights. They are victims of caste and dominant politics. Talking about Mudra Yojna she said this policy of government is giving financial stability to communities all across and every scheme should emulate this model.
❖ Q/A Session
To Prof. Badri Narayan
1. Sir, you haven’t touch upon the critics of the policies. What you think about the aspirations of people?
A: I am not an agent of any political party so I am not criticizing any policy at any ground. The aspirations and wishes of people are their personal matter. After a long era they have seen a hope for transforming their aspirations into realities by the government. This is the thing which we observed during our study.
To Prof. Nicholas Gravel
2. Sir, you have just share the data of some religions of the country. Since there are many more religions, how can you justify the literacy rate over religions by just taking few as a base?
A: I have just done a basic survey and analysis of the literacy rate in these religions as they are majorly practiced in this country. I would be really interested in expanding my study to other religions as well.
Parallel Session 1
Parallel Session – 1 was chaired by Dr. Vandana Mishra, Assistant Professor, JNU. Dr. Vandana welcomed the distinguished speakers including Dr. Swasti (Assistant Professor, University of Delhi), Dr. Himanshu Shekhar (Assistant Professor, University of Sambalpur, Odisha), Mr. Gopi Nath (pre-doctoral fellow) and Dr. Sonika (Assistant Professor). A
presentation time of seven minutes was allotted to all the participants.
• Dr. Swasti, Assistant Professor, University of Delhi
Dr Swati presented paper on the topic ‘Dalit Identity and the Body Politic; Apprehending the Future of Reservation Policy from the Perspective of Raja Dhale’. Examining the pertinence of Dalit Panther political rhetoric in the contemporary scenario, Dr Swasti drew attention to the action program with respect to the Dalits. Spoke about Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment’s development schemes for Dalits. Dr Swati also spoke about Raja Dhale who contemplated the ramification of factionalism with Dalit discourse and put premium in education of all Dalit men and women. Dr Swati said that Dalit was the term adopted by underprivileged castes in India to represent the collective consciousness. In 2007 census of India, the Dalit class population was estimated to be about 200 million which constituted to 16% of the total population. Inspired by Black Panthers and United States, Dalit Panthers even justified radical means as a legitimate means to accomplish the desired ends. The Dalit Panther’s movement redirects attention towards the growing differences in the Hindu religion which could lead to political radicalization.
• Dr. Himanshu Shekhar, Assistant Professor, University of Sambalpur, Odisha
Dr Himanshu Shekhar spoke on ‘Theory and Practice of Social Justice’. He said that the central question for philosopher John Rawls was how to establish a just society. Social justice is there to combat with the unfair equality of opportunity. It tends to protect primarily two perspectives of a just society i.e. guarantying personal liberty and political status equity and equality of chances. A true social justice strengthens a welfare state, he said. This can be attained through harmonious and cooperative efforts of the citizens. The correct norms of morality are that the beneficiaries should be responsible and thankful to the underprivileged as it is not their right but an opportunity that makes them capable for developing their full capacities and enjoying social justice. A true focus of revolutionary change is to ask am “Am I an oppressor”. To protect social justice means a transformation from ‘inhumanism’ to humanism.
• Mr. Gopi Nath, pre-doctoral fellow
Mr. Gopi Nath spoke on the topic ‘The Need for Spatial Planning in Policy Making for Social Justice’. Presenteing a case study from Samarban Village in Chennai he said that social consciousness deals with socio-economic-political conditions and geographical perspective and how we associate ourselves with nature and society.
He said that during the case study it was observed that the area of the village was divided into parts where the Dalit class lived and the other castes accommodated. Even the cattle of Dalits could not get into the ponds used by the other class. He said that if we take the case of policy making and administration, most of the policies are implemented from top to bottom. The policies of social justice should eradicate unjust norms and also protect beliefs of people simultaneously.
• Dr. Sonika, Assistant Professor
Dr Sonika spoke on the topic ‘The Vision of ‘Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas’ in Modi Government’s Policies’. Dr Sonika said that in the last five years government has shown how politics can transform and develop a new India. The government is working to uplift the youths through schemes and policies such as Pradhan Mantri Rozgaar Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Research Fellowship Yojana. Besides this, startups are being facilitated and about 14 all-India institutes of medical sciences, 14 Indian institute of technologies, 103 Kendriya Vidyalayas, 62 universities have been established so far to enhance the quality of education in the country. Government is also putting efforts in the field of women empowerment. A number of schemes such as Beti Bachao Beti-Padhao initiative, Pradhan Mantri Matriya Vandhana Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana, ration cards in the name of women initiative, scholarships for girl students etc have been introduced.
❖ Q/A Session
1. In southern India today Brahmins are nowhere in the picture. How you came to witness anti-Brahmanism in your case study?
(Mr. Gopi Nath): I have stated about anti-Brahmanism and not particularly about Brahmins. Brahmanism is a broader term. I belong to Tamil Nadu and yes, I believe that anti- Brahmanism is increasing among groups.
(Dr. Swasti): Today we witness that new Dalits are less and less dependent on reservations. Apart from that, today a severe issue which we are facing is the upliftment of Dalit women and we need to find some broader initiatives for the same.
2. Among caste categories there are a number of heterogeneous divisions. Did you witness any variations in the communities in your study?
(Mr. Gopi Nath): Yes, there were variations within the communities as well. But our focus of study was the resource allocation among the classes in the village - about how they use the community resources and the norms and restrictions guiding them.
Dr. Vandhana Mishra concluded the session. She said that Social Justice is not just a concept of morality rather it has much more dimensions as we witness the scenario in contemporary times. She appreciated the efforts of the research scholars who did their research keeping their emotions, morals and values aside. She said that we need to create better ground opportunities to sort this problem. She thanked the paper presenters for delivering such knowledgeable content and drawing attention to issues.
Parallel Session – II,
Parallel session-II, was chaired by Md. Nisar Ahmed, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. He welcomed all the speakers and thanked the participants present the Seminar Hall. He said that it is a great honor for him to chair this session.
• Aman Pandey, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management Studies
The theme of his presentation was ‘Depiction of Disability in Indian Culture and Role of Current Government – A Paradigm Shift’ in his presentation Mr. Pandey gave a glimpse of cultural references with regard to disabilities. He cited examples of Mantra, Shakuni, Dhritrashtra and Ash Tavakra from the epics. He also spoke about the Persons With Disabilities Act, 2016. He outlined discrimination, inadequate infrastructure, lack of education, employment, marriage and people’s attitude towards disability as key issues faced by people with disabilities. The policies of the present government such as changing the word Viklang to Divgang, reservations, insurance cover, education, benefits and protection against discrimination are now making the environment friendly and supportive for them. And these efforts are milestone to achieve equality.
• Dr. P. J. Sudhakar, ASG, PIB
Dr. Sudhakar gave a brief introduction of Dr B.R. Ambedkar. The theme of his paper was ‘Issues and Policies of Senior Citizens’. He said that parents rear up their children and when children become adults and independent they leave their parents. He said that parents don’t need sympathy but they need empathy. Discussed the constitutional provisions regarding the rights of parents he said that human values, rights, liberty, equality, fraternity, social justice are life issues. He discussed the action plan of 1971 and the Ballot Paper Provision of Delhi Government, with this he also shared the tax benefits and travel allowances for senior citizens. He said that parents have the legal right to file the petition against their children but they do not use it out of love for their children. However, children are abandoning parents at railways station, airports, and Kumbh Melas. He said that there is an urgent need to amend disallocation of family bonds and it should be the constitutional duty of state to prevent the rights of senior citizens.
• Mr. Gaurav Ranjan
The presentation of Mr. Gaurav Ranjan was based on the theme ‘Schedule Caste and Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojna’. He stated that awareness and adoptation of PMJDY is a step towards making financial transactions transparent and Fair. He remarked that this step of government is aimed at drawing people out of debt traps. An ordinary man can have his bank account at zero balance and yet access the facility of loan and ATM. He said that advertisements through television and newspapers played a vital role in promoting the scheme but unfortunately 70-80% Jan-Dhan Accounts are non-functioning. He said that people have the accounts but don’t know how to operate. He said for this regional level awareness is required, He emphasized that door to door awareness campaigns and 'Bank Mitrare needed so that people can avail benefits of subsidies. He said that the scheme had achieved several milestones but some loopholes exist which should be resolved soon.
• Mr. Pankaj Anand
In his presentation Mr. Pankaj Anand discussed the efforts of government to boost Dalit entrepreneurship. His theme for the paper presentation was ‘Role of Government Policy on Dalit Entrepreneurship’. In his presentation he mentioned the policy of P.K. Krishnan on Dalit entrepreneurship. He said that India is moving towards a golden time where there is no room for practices like untouchability. He said affirmation action in business sector is leading towards a growth of Dalits. He said that social capital, networking, policies and resources are helping to boost Dalit entrepreneurship.
❖ Q&A, Comments
Following the paper presentations Md. Nisar Ahmed thanked to everyone and opened the session for general comments and questions.
1) Miss. Pooja Yadav, Banaras Hindu University
Miss. Pooja said that while the society is moving towards social justice and schemes such as Ujjawala, Jan Dhan and Mudra are doing remarkable efforts, but instead of relying entirely on the government steps should be taken from our side as well.
2) Mohd Shaad, Zakir Husain Delhi College Evening, University of Delhi
Mr. Shaad said that the need of the present scenario is leadership of youth as the youth of today is the social ambassador of tomorrow. The government must focus on leadership of youth only then we can remove untouchability and bring about social justice.
3) Dr. P.J. Sudhakar, ASG, PIB
Dr. Sudhakar said that parents don’t need the sympathy but empathy. He said there are the schemes of National Awards, Integrated National Schemes and Indira Gandhi Pension Scheme. The thing our senior citizens require is our time and our love, we must take care of them as they have taken care of us.
Plenary Session-II was chaired by Dr. Ravikant Mishra, Dy. Director, Nehru Memorial Museum, New Delhi. He welcomed all the eminent speakers and thanked the organisers for the session.
• Dr. Omkar Rai, Director General, Software Technology Parks Of India (STPI), New Delhi
Dr Omkar Rai said that the present government is very conscious to fill the gaps between the haves and have-nots. He said that in modern times Internet has brought people on a common platform and the government is connecting people through the communication highways. He said that today 128 lakh panchayats and state governments are connected with the digital technology. He said that Jan Dhan and Aadhar are among the prominent milestones of the government. Jan Dhan has made India a leader in executing a banking scheme at such a vast level. Bheem UPI is also a unique model of digital payment bank. He said the trinity of Aadhar-Jan Dhan and Bheem UPI has created a financial bridge to deliver social Justice. Today India is empowered with digitalization and schemes such as Direct Benefits Transfer are turning the opaque system transparent. He said that today e-portals are helping students get scholarships and e-kyc is helping with verifications. India is leading the world with such unique schemes today. Every citizen is now getting opportunities and the country is transforming into a digital nation.
• Prof. Anand Paliwal, Dept. Of Law, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur
Prof. Anand said that the ‘Divide and Rule’ policy of the British was the reason why we need social justice policies today. The Colonial rulers divided India into social hierarchies and even after 70 years’ of Independence, we are still trapped in the illusion of social inequalities. We need to warm up sense of fraternity only then we can grow. Even today people believe in superstitions such as witchcraft and black magic. In Rajasthan there have been cases were a Dalit grooms were not allowed to sit on a horse. The present government is working to maintain equality, respect and dignity in the society. While the government is making polices with the right perspective, a sense of fraternity can’t be imposed by law.
• Prof. Santosh Mehrotra, Center For Informal Sector and Labour Studies, School Of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
Prof. Santosh talked about Swachch Bharat Mission, Jan Dhan Yojna, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojna and Social Insurance Schemes of the Modi government. He shared database that showed the positive impact of policies towards society. He said that India had highest rates in open defection and malnutrition but the proposal of Swachch Bharat Mission and its implementation has lead to a healthier and clean society. He said that Jan Dhan Yojna is a steel pillar for ensuring financial stability in the society. He also talked about rural housing and maternity scheme of the government and said that the government is moving towards innovative ideas and social Justice.
❖ Prof. Sanjay Paswan, Patna University, Patna and Former Union Minister, Government of India
Prof. Paswan said that people are suffering from social injustice and to counter that the government has done a lot of work. The work targets not only one class of the society but the society as a whole. He said that there is a need for a paradigm shift in society. He outlined four stages of people’s nature as aggrieved, aggressive, assertive and aspirational. The gaps in the society can be fulfilled only by cultural involvement, distributive justice, educational involvement, venture set up, efficient government structure, institutional set up (IIM, IITs etc.), Jan Dhan and leadership quality. He said that today government is making efforts to make people aspirational and we must join hands and must change our perspectives towards the deprived sections.
❖ Q&A Session
To Dr. Omkar Rai
1. Sir don’t you think that excessive technology dependence is moving towards Cyber Crime?
A: There are some roadblocks - we have been facing the problems of cybercrime but still we are at a stable position to manage our digital transactions, and for the issue of cybercrime we have laws and provisions to resolve disputes.
To Prof. Anand Paliwal
2. Sir don’t you think that we must have a legal framework for witchcraft?
We have the legal frame work to deal with this problem but the issue is that superstitious practices do not get washed out easily and not just the illiterate but even university students and intellectuals believing in them.
Parallel Session- IV
This session was chaired by Dr. Mukesh Manas, Associate Professor, Satyawati College, University of Delhi. He welcomed eminent speakers and participants and expressed his gratitude to the organizers for appointing him as a chair of the Session.
❖ Mr. Rajesh Kumar, Research Scholar
The paper of Mr. Rajesh wash based on reservation policies of India and South Africa. He presented a comparative study of reservation policies of both the nations. He discussed caste and racial discrimination, national segregation. He also touched the points of reservation in government jobs, representation of deprived class at top level post of government, dominant caste politics in both the countries. He illustrated the similarities and dissimilarities between the policies of both the countries.
❖ Mr. Siddharth Mukherjee, Assistant Professor, BBAU, Lucknow
The presentation of Mr. Mukherjee was on ‘Institutional Change of Digital India’. He talked about the export orientation, software technology park and technical connectivity. He discussed the project of e-governance by Chandrababu Naidu government as well as the E-governance scheme of Kissan Call Centre and Aadhar. He said that the NDA government transformed the E-governance project to Digital India with the objective of social welfare. He also the discussed the theory of party dependency and tipping point and touched upon the point of incremental institutional change. Talking about structural and technological layering he said that overall implication of a policy depends upon the integration and negotiation of different actors of the system.
❖ Mr. Satya Prakash, Research Scholar, University of Delhi
In his presentation Mr. Satya Prakash said that Bihar is the land of Buddha and the philosophy of Buddha says that “all man are born equal to each other” but in reality that philosophy has little impact in Bihar. Caste which was centered on the idea of purity and impurity ruined the social fabric and the development of those who are placed last. Three layers existed in Bihar - Upper Castes, Middle Castes and the Dalits. The Middle Castes have been divided into two categories EBCs and BCs according to development of castes groups politically socially and economically. Three models of development existed in Bihar to uplift the backwards to a level playing field.
1. Karpoori Thakur introduced educational and reservation policy in Bihar. 8% for BC, 12% For EBC, 3% women, 3% EWS. Gave acceleration to OBC politics in Bihar.
2. Lalu and Rabri Model believed in providing lost respect to the backwards but neglected development. Their tenure in the name of development benefitted only upper backwards and Yadavs especially.
3. Nitish Kumar tried to clean the image of Jungle Raj and established law and order in the state. Employed his social engineering skill and made more castes groups like Maha-Dalit and implemented policies accordingly. However, his policies are an extension of the idea of Karpoori Thakur.
He said that the recent formulation of Justice Rohini Commission, EWS 10% reservation is the extension of Karpoori Model.
❖ Prashant Bartwal, Research Scholar, Department Of Political Science, University of Delhi
In his presentation Mr. Bartwal discussed the ‘Triple Talaq Conundrum’. He said the issue of Triple Talaq had been debated since a long time and the present government did a remarkable effort in this. He mentioned that people who did injustice with women are helpless now. According to him this bill corrected the historical wrongs and restored the honour and dignity of women. He said this is a remarkable step taken by the government which is towards equality for all.
Parallel Session- V
The session was chaired by Dr. Amit singh, Atma Ram Sanatana Dharma College, University of Delhi.He welcomed all the presenters and participants and expressed gratitude towards the organizing committee.
❖ Dr Netaji Abhinandan, Assistant Professor, Revenshaw University, Bhubneswar, Orissa
Dr Abhinandan spoke about how Antyodaya, as a holistic school of thought, is reflecting in all schemes political, economic, cultural and social outlook of the government. Politically Antyodaya indicates a complete unity without division into any class, caste or religion; in economic sense it states formulation of such policies that uplift the weakest sections of the society to attain self-sufficiency; in philosophy of Antyodaya propagates oneness of souls. Modi’s vision is transformation from Antodaya to Sarvodaya. The policies of the government have helped it to connect with the masses. Antodaya is not only a thought but a mission towards a new, prosperous and better India. The journey to achieve Sarvodaya from Antodaya has begun.
❖ Ajit Kumar, Assistant Professor, Shivaji College, DU
Mr Ajit Kumar spoke on ‘Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas in Context to New Education Policy’. He said that education is a base for development of a country. Education spreads awareness amongst people and helps them to develop. We cannot achieve social change if any class of society is neglected. He said that in the recent education system policy, government is laying force on overall development of students.
He pointed out that the education policy formulation committee has shown that due to a number of factors many SCs, STs and OBC students are unable to complete their education. He said we need to find ideas to combat these problems and sort them out. We need to make the school authorities aware and responsible for supporting the backward students. Many students from these classes face language problems and should be provided with material to develop the same.
❖ Mr. Rangam Trivedi, Social Activist, Gujarat
Mr Trivedi spopke on ‘Antodaya and Idea of Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas’. He said that the policy slogan of the government rightly reflects the idea of Antyodaya. Modi government has provided an affordable health care scheme Ayushman Bharat for all. In the process of treatment and curing medicines play the most vital role. Keeping in mind the cost of medicines, the government has come up with Pradhan Mantri Jan Aushadhi Paryojana to provide medicine at cheaper rates.
Ujjwala Scheme provides free LPG gas connections to rural households. Pandit Deen Dayal Gram Jyoti Yojana lights up villages with electricity supply. The Jan Dhan Yojana provided banking facilities to every class. A number of such schemes have been implemented to establish the idea of antyodaya.
❖ Shrawan Bhagael, Research Scholar, Arunachal Pradesh
Mr Bhagael spoke on ‘Concept of Antodaya in Contemporary Political Scenario’. He said that after Independence we got a number of foreign political thoughts about establishing of a just society. One of the great philosophers and social thinkers, Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya, introduced the idea of Antyodaya. He believed that when the person standing last in the line of society will develop, then only we can achieve development of the society. The idea of Antyodaya states sustainable development and overall well-being of the society as a whole. India is a country of diversities. Our government is working to establish and fulfill the basic needs of all the people. It is not only the duty of government, but we are similarly responsible for development of society.
❖ Q&A Session
1. Why are we not able to achieve the idea of Antyodaya on ground?
Some people who are trusted and given the power to uplift the society are using their authority for just fulfilling self needs. They need to work selflessly.
2. Why can’t we have reservations on economic grounds?
The Constitution of India had provided provisions for the social and educational backwardness. Reservation is a complicated issue in itself.
Plenary Session- III
Plenary Session-III was chaired by Dr Pinki Maurya, Assistant Professor, Lakshmibai College, DU. Dr Pinki welcomed eminent speakers Shri Dushyant Gautam (National Vice-pesident, Bhartiya Janta party) and Shri Kauslendra Patel (Member, National commission for backward classes) by presenting them with Mementos.
• Kaushlendra Patel, Member, National Commission for Backward Classes
Talking about the history of India’s backward class, Mr Patel said this class has been the manufacturing class of our country. He said that from preparing sweets to a vegetable seller, the ground level producer and manufacturer class of the country is the one seeking social justice. Many vital figures in our history like Maharaja Chhattrapati Shivaji, Devi Ahilya Bai Holkar etc. have belonged to this class.
He said that this class was never primitive. In fact, they are very skilled and hardworking people. During the colonial rule, this was the class which felt the most exploitation.
At the time of Baba Shaheb Ambedkar and Pandit Deen Dayal Upadayaya, this class built up aspirations to uplift their livelihood. Today Modiji’s government has transformed these aspirations into reality with a lot a schemes as Jan Dhan Yojana, Mudra Loans. For the Dalit youngsters startups are being facilitated and Make In India was launched to increase employment. For women empowerment Ujjwala Yojana was introduced.
Today, BJP has provided political representations to this class, to improve their livelihood. He said we have uplifted this class through political, social and economic scenarios. The BJP government has never been afraid to take tough decisions like with approaching elections we reviewed and reclaimed the atrocities act. In our universities, we implemented 200 point roaster.
The government has its vision in ‘Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas’.
About 85% of our population is detached from the mainstream, as they didn’t get knowledge and opportunities to cope up with the growing technologies. But today our Skill India programs are working for upliftment. We have constituted the National Commission for Backward Class and government is committed to build a New India and uplift this class.
• Shri Dushyant Gautam, National Vice President, Bhartiya Janta Party
Shri Gautam spoke about constituting a society which with cultural harmony and where every class has its importance. He said that since historic times India has been ruled by several powers but it never lost its rich cultural heritage. However, he added that after Independence it was felt that the division between the classes was strengthening. He went on to narrate two stories in this context: In 1956, during his last days Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was revealed to his subordinates that it had been eight years since Independence and the vision of reservation policy was still left unattended. While it had been thought that people may take reservation in jobs to uplift their community, it was realized that people lacked selflessness. They used the reservation opportunity to uplift themselves and joined the mainstream, not thinking about their community.
On 26 November 2014, when BJP came to government, Prime Minister Narendra Modi asked Arun Jaitley what ‘Law Day’ implied. Mr Jaitley replied that on this day in all the courts, laws are discussed. The name was then changed to ‘Constitution Day’ and the discussion was extended to lawmakers. In Parliament there was discussion of the same and great ideas came up after discussing the mindsets of our great lawmakers.
Dr. Ambedkar had wisely stated that we can have reservation but with proper policies of government to uplift people of all classes. The BJP government has a vision to make a new and better India. He said that the BJP government, when came to power, worked for the upliftment of the BPL class. It made provisions to provided resources to a newly born child at every stage. Beti Bachao Beti Padhao initiative today is empowering women throughout the country. Sukanya Yojana provided financial assistance to girls. The government has formulated policies that have allocated resources to every single need of the society. Today the government has given insurance of Rs 2 lakhs for Rs 330 premium and accidental insurance of Rs 2 lakh for Rs 12 premium. Besides this, Ayushman Yojana provides Rs 5 lakh insurance.
Shri Gautam concluded by saying that untouchability lies in the mind and to counter this we have reservation policies. Today it’s our responsibility to lead our society towards development and formulate a new India.
• Dr. R.S Kureel, Vice Chancellor, Birsa Munda Agricultural University, Ranchi
Talking about nation building Dr Kureel said that this is the aspect that we should all focus on. He said that today we have immense growth in the field of science but we still face a lot of superstitions in social sciences. Just like we place agriculture scientists in the field to enhance agriculture, similarly ground research in social science and participation of youth is needed in nation building.
He went on to discuss some factors which are essential for social justice.
Social Intensification: The constitution of India provides everyone with one vote one value which promotes equality. Economic empowerment is needed to elevate them through adequate policies. Resource allocation is required to uplift the people and make them a part of the mainstream society. Participation in decision making is needed so that they get a platform to share their problems and find adequate solutions.
Dr Kureel said that when Simon commission came to India, it conducted three round-table conferences which concluded Government of India Act 1935 stating the need for reservation in India. We have studied Simon Go Back but no one knows Simon Commission came to India to report atrocities. This calls for a need to review history without any sub-alterations. We need to bring all the classes on the same level with help of reservation and develop them from the same platform. The government is rightly making policies for the same.
Plenary Session-IV was chaired by Prof. Madhav Govind, Center for Studies of Science Policy, School of Social Science, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. The Session began with welcoming of the distinguished speakers Shri Ram Madhav, Director, India Foundation and General Secretary, Bhartiya Janata Party and Dr. David Frawley, USA.
• Dr. David Frawley, eminent speaker, USA
At the opening of his address Dr Frawley pointed out that Prime Minister Narendra Modi has the largest diplomatic relations throughout the world today. He said that India is leading in development throughout the world but it is still fighting with social issues within.
He said that social justice is a huge topic and also much comprehensive. The current Indian government is binding social justice with national integration. Social justice is a factor of identity politics. Today for the establishment of a just society, non-government organisations and social organisation are playing a vital role. In India, there is considerable diversity and social issues. India’s share of global economy was much larger and literacy was much higher before the British came to rule. To reconstitute the situation social justice must go along with development and national integration.
Dr Frawley said that India evolved from a rich cultural heritage and civilisation. We need to understand the need for change. We need to develop the ecological economy but also protect the social economy. In contemporary era the very nature of society and human relationships is changing due to this technology. We need to use it wisely. The initiative of Ayushman Bharat Health Care scheme is a great achievement. The Government is now promoting yoga and providing ground level setups for Ayushman Yojana. Unfortunately, even today we are witnessing he issues related to Dalits. It is the responsibility of the government to come up with policies for integral development of the society and reconnect to our enriched cultural heritage.
• Shri Ram Madhav, Director, India foundation and general secretary, Bhartiya Janata Party
At the very outset Shri Ram Madhav clarified that the issue of social justice is not limited to India alone. He said that every social system faces these problems and copes with them to establish a just society.
He went on to say that social injustices that have been witnessed in the society in the past have not been imposed by any or through order. India’s context has always been ideals of social equality, social unity and fraternity. The oldest text Rig Veda states that there is no one superior or inferior in a society. Through the discourse of time, societies have developed and reformed. When we are not much flexible to reform we become fundamental and it is responsible for all kind of problems.
He said that equality and liberty can be forced through law but fraternity can only be established by social evolution.
Social justice is when all groups participate in decision making and help shaping the destiny of the nation. Equality cannot be imposed it needs to be established by people.
Don’t flog the wrong horse, if caste system is irrelevant, it should go but we need to find another alternative system to substitute it.
Shri Ram Madhav concluded by observing that we have all categorically rejected the hierarchy of castes. Human dignity and participation in decision making are the important discourse we need to look upon.
Prof. Madhav Govind concluded the session with emphasis on civilisational awakening and reconnection with rich cultural heritage. He also drew attention towards national integration and unity in diversity to cope up with this issue.
Plenary Session- V
Plenary Session -5 was by Dr. Nirmal Jindal,Associate Professor, Satyawati College, University of Delhi. In the beginning eminent speakers Dr. Koenraad Elst, (Eminent thinker, Belgium) and Shri Shyam Babu (Senior Fellow, Centre of Policy Research, New Delhi) were welcomed and felicitated by Prof C. Sheela Reddy, IIPA.
• Dr. Koenraad Elst, Eminent thinker, Belgium
Dr. Koenraad Elst began his address by talking about Dr Ambedkar. He said that Ambedkar is a famous figure in India. Talking about his book on Ambedkar titled “Ambedkar: a true Aryan”, Dr Elst said that he was with the Indian people. He pointed out that Ambedkar had rejected the principle of reservation and accepted it only as a temporary measure and India should get over it in 10 years or so.
Dr Elst said that Ambedkar was member of the viceroy’s council of British. Modi a backward himself counted on winning over the masses by favoring reservations and uplifting backward classes.
Describing the reservation policy as quite progressive in rest of the world, Dr Elst cited the case of South Africa. He said that in India the story is a bit different as the caste system was basically introduced by British as a part of its divide and rule policy. The Indian Constitution still carries some signs of colonial origin like the existence of separate civil courts. Social justice could be defined as equality of outcomes.
Dr Elst said that in a secular state, there is no concept of minority. Laws and rights are provided to all and government makes sure to secure them. We need to transform the orientation of the systems to freedom of choice.
• Shri Shyam Babu, Senior Fellow, Center of Policy Research, New Delhi
Shri Shyam Babu described the Indian society as a complex one. He said that there are so many variations and diversities in languages, codes, culture within the Indian social set up. He added that social justice in India has undergone a big change since 2014.
Dwelling on this further he said that it has undergone concept of ‘Congressisation’ i.e. today the BJP is like more of Congress Party of the past. It has become a dominating player.
The BJP is traditionally a conservative party, but it is moving towards left of centre from right of centre. The BJP was initially seen as a primarily Brahman-Baniya party, but now has gathered support from a number of classes.
Shri Babu said that it is the duty of the state to reach out to all castes and classes and find solutions to help them out. Since Independence, Congress symbolised a national model of sorts. But the evolution of caste based political parties brought about the decline of Congress. The BJP devised Article 340 that government should appoint commission for study groups which are economically and educationally backward.
Shri Babu felt that the move of the government to give SC status to some of the OBCs is a significant one. However, he pointed out that the upper OBCs enjoy political domination and with this move they will still enjoy all perks of SCs. He criticised this move as he felt that it will not sort the problem.
❖ Q&A Session
1. How are people belonging to the other backward class committing atrocities against SCs and STs?
My point is only to distinguish between SCs, STs and OBC. Most atrocities are committed by dominant class of OBCs.
2. Why the rules have not been extended to Dalit Muslim and Dalit Christians?
Constitution points out that the provisions of social justice are not extended to these Dalits as they are believed to not be the natives of India. But I personally believe that they should also be included within the provisions.
This session is chaired by Prof. Chinna Rao, Centre For the Study of Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policies, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University. He welcomed all the speakers and participants.
❖ Prof. Sarthak Bagh, Dept. Of Political Science, Babasaheb Ambedkar University, Lucknow
Mr. Sarthak Bagh stated that the present government has a huge mandate to implement the policy of social justice and mitigate its challenges. He said that slogan of the government “Sabka Sath, Sabka Vikas and Sabka Vishwaas” reflects the broader vision of the government. He talked about the neo-liberal policy of the present government. He said that the government has strong sentiments towards the issues pertaining to social justice and national transformation. He mentioned polices such as Jan Dhan, Mudra Loan, Swachh Bharat Mission and Beti Bachao Beti Padao Yojna in this regard. He said around 75% of loans under Mudra Yojna are availed by women applicants and 53% Jan Dhan accounts are that of women. He said that this is a considerable millstone towards women empowerment. He also talked about 200-point roster and the SCs/STs Act. He mentioned the privatisation of sectors and according to him privatization gives an opportunity to equalize development. He concluded by saying that today we are moving towards an egalitarian society and the Modi government is getting support from all the sections of the society.
❖ Prof. Rakesh Upadhyay, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
Prof. Upadhyay began by mentioning the words of Ambedkar who had said that the real goal of the Constitution will be achieved only when political justice will come as a social justice. However, he said that social justice will not come through Constitution but through the constitution operators. He said that ‘Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas, Sabka Vishwaas‘ is a world famous slogan today. Actually, it is not just a slogan but an ideology of the present government. He mentioned schemes like Jan Dhan Yojna and Swatch Bharat Mission in this context. He said that the sanitation arrangements at the Kumbh Mela were a matter of international coverage. He also talked about reservation for economically weaker sections and mentioned about the conditions of Dalit Brahmans. He said that since the last one decade every section in our country is getting aware about their constitutional rights. He also said that today the condition of senior citizens is getting worst and we are moving away from values. Talking about globalization he said that this is leading to the process of brain-drain in our economy. He also spoke about the SC/ST Atrocity Act and Liberalism Policies. He mentioned Ayushman Bharat Programme as a health revolution for all the sections of society. Towards the end he said that in our society every section has its own different skills and to boost that skill the government has taken initiatives such as Skill India and Make in India.
❖ Q&A Session
To Mr. Sarthik Bagh
1. Sir isn’t liberalization the policy of UPA government and not of the present government?
Yes, NEP-1991 was a policy of UPA government but the present government is working very well to boost it, both in the case of liberalization as well as privatisation. So this is what I meant.
To Mr. Rajesh Upadhyaya
2. Sir you said Ayushman Yojana is for all, I think there are some categories in it as well.
Yes of course, Ayushman Bharat is not for everyone, government haS laid access categories for beneficiaries of Ayushman Bharat Yojana.
Prof. Sudhir Pratap, (Center for Indian languages, School of Language, Literature and Cultural Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi) chaired the session. He welcomed all the paper presenters and participants. A time of about nine minutes was given to every presenter.
❖ Ananya Barua, Professor, Philosophy, Hindu College, University of Delhi
Prof Barua talked about another dimension of social justice in relation to environment and ecology. She illustrated the significance of the five elements - air, fire, water, earth and space. She said that while these elements are crucial to our survival technology has become our master and we humans have become nature deficient. This is a reason why most people are suffering from solastalgia - a form of emotional or existential distress caused by environmental change. She said that social justice is to connect to nature - we cannot ignore our roots. In Vedas we see that the importance of nature has been intercepted. We were on rank 177 out of 180 countries in the World Environmental Index. The government has formulated policies like Clean Ganga initiative, Swachch Bharat and clean energy campaigns. Tribes of northeast are specialized in a number of natural handicrafts which government should promote.
❖ Tamanna Bhosle, Assistant Professor
Tamanna Bhosle spoek about gender equality and how it is a major concern in today’s world. She said that there is a need not just to be concerned about material acquisitions but also about oppression and marginalisation. Women are minorities despite being 50% of the world’s population and patriarchal societies continue to discriminate and exploit them to a greater extent.
She said that the government has to think in different dimensions to sort out this problem. Some of the policies of government in this regard include Beti Bachao; Beti Padhao, Ujjwala, Sukanya Yojana etc.
She said that besides these the government needs to formulate some non-materialistic policies to ensure that women are not continuously oppressed within the liberal setup. She pointed out that the Dalit women and women belonging to weaker sections of society face the worst sufferings.
❖ Shruti Joshi, Assistant Professor, Satyawati College, New Delhi
Shruti Joshi spoke on the topic ‘Rise of New India: E-Rastra and social justice’. She said that if we refigure the concept of social justice, the word social would mean human constituents of the society and justice would mean the principle that ensures equality and provides equal justice.
Joshi pointed out that E-governance is playing a vital role in ensuring social justice is achieved in the society. This is being done through initiatives such as ICT tools. She said that E-governance is now ensuring P2 or pro people and G2 or good governance.
With the enlargement of target beneficiaries, some women empowering platforms are Mahila E-Haatt, National Repository Information, Women Entrepreneur Portal, Uddyam Sakhi Portal etc.
The schemes for senior citizens include Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Yojana, Jeevan Praman, Anubhav platform etc.
For citizen participation in governance E-sampark, MyGov App, Pragati- Grievance cell etc. have been started. With all these schemes the country is transforming from Bharat to E-Rastra.
❖ K.V Rao
In his presentation, Mr KV Rao said that since Independence we have only 27% working class of women in India, but now the figures are improving. Since 2014, the government has brought Domestic Violence Act and Abolition of Tripal Talaq to empower the women.
In 2001 census the gender ratio was about 931:1000 but in 2011 it dropped to 918:1000. The government came up with ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’ initiative. There are about 27% Dalits in India with a very little representation in politics. To address this situation, the government promoted policies and initiative.
❖ Mrs. Yayifaffi
Drawing attention to the idea of social justice in north east India, Mrs Yayifaffi said that north east India is highly isolated and under developed. About 10% of population belongs to schedule tribes. Though the region lacks basic infrastructure and connectivity but since 2014 it has witnessed numerous developments. Connectivity has been improved manifold. There exist more than 220 tribal groups in the region. A number of schemes have been now floated to benefit them. Great social and economic development has also taken place.
❖ Dr. Rajwant Kaur
Dr Kaur spoke on the topic ‘Assertion of Ravi Dasi Community and Demolishing of Ravi Dasi Temple’. Dr Kaur said that in Punjab Chamar Deras are establish in the memory of Guru Ravidas. Ravidasi identity is being reinforced through these deras. She said that the heads of the deras are different from Sikh and Hindu gurus and the followers of Ravidas have a completely different way of living. The Ravidasi print and electronic media has also provided singers which are famous not only in Punjab but also overseas. On 9 August 2019 the Ravi Dasi Temple was demolished by Supreme Court however after heavy protests it was decided to rebuild it.
❖ Dr. Sudhir
Dr Sudhir began his presentation by quoting James Madison on the ideas of Antodaya and just society. Madison stated that equality should be rightly balanced in the society. Dr Sidhir said that some policies of the Modi government such as Swachch Bharat Abhiyaan attempt to do the same.
The Swachch Bhart Mission claims that lasting change could be brought about by changing the behaviour pattern of people. He said that upliftment of the last person in the society is the idea of Antyodaya. Ayushman Bharat Yojana is another scheme aimed in this direction. He added that we need to work on collective consciousness to achieve Antyodaya.
❖ Q&A Session
1. Can we not adopt Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay’s idea of ‘Swadeshi’ in modern India?
We are still not completely independent on external sources. Through Make in India we are attracting businesses but still not completely self reliant. For example, in Rafael deal some major parts of plane are being prepared by India.
Following the discussion session Dr. Sudhir Pratap concluded the seminar and thanked all the participants.
The session was chaired by Dr. Raghunath Saket, Satyawati College, University of Delhi
• Dr. Santosh Kumar Singh, Sri Venkateshwar College, University of Delhi
The topic of his paper presentation was ‘Social Justice and Women Empowerment’. In his presentation Dr Santosh talked about schemes such as ‘Beti Bacaho Beti Padao’, ‘Ujjawala’ and ‘Janani Suraksha Yojna’. He discussed the impact of Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna and One Stop Center Scheme. He said that government has also introduced considerable schemes for pregnant women and has provided them advantages under ‘Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana’. He concluded by saying that the government is making a remarkable efforts for the benefit of women section as well.
• Priya Gautam, Research Scholar, Central University of Punjab
The topic of her paper presentation was ‘Social Inclusion of Transgender in the Tenure of Modi Government’. Ms Priya began by giving a small introduction of transgenders and remarked that decriminalization of homosexuality was a step toward social justice for transgenders. She mentioned schemes for transgenders and also talked about National Council For Transgenders. She discussed Skill Development Programs for transgenders and the role of such schemes in helping the community members build a life for themselves. At last she said that the government is providing social and institutional safeguards to the transgender but society needs to accept them wholeheartedly, only then can they find justice.
• Dr. Hem Lata , Shyama Prasad Mukherjee College, University of Delhi
Dr. Hem Lata discussed transforming educational policies. She mentioned the role of vocational studies and talked about how education can bring about social change. She said that education is a tool of social change and we must use it well to serve the social justice. She talked about the remarkable efforts made under Right to Education Act and also mentioned about neo-liberalisation revolution in education. She said that we have three kinds of policies and implementations - first one is bad policy with bad implementation, second is good policy with bad implementation and third is good policy with good implementations. She said that we need to be conscious about policies and their implications. She concluded by saying that the motive of education is to create a dialogue - we have to be educated and be together only then we can fight for our rights.
• Dr. Faisal Khan, Associate Professor, Galgotia University
Dr. Faisal presented a paper on the theme ‘Marginalised Women and Challenges’. He mentioned the impact of globalization and discussed the issue of marginal groups. With this he also talked about multi-national companies and debt traps of money lenders. He spoke about the agenda of equity before law, education reservation, directive principle and MANREGA. Finally, he talked about restoring the status and dignity of marginalised women through reservations in panchayats, and also said that a decisive transformation can be achieved through law.
• Dr. Ankit Tomar, Jawaharlal Nehru University
Dr. Tomar touched upon issues like exclusion, exploitation, marginalisation and isolation in his paper. He also talked about chronic poverty and equal distribution of resources. He said that the mandate of the government is to work under the principle of ‘Sabka Sath Sabka Vikas, Sabka Vishwaas‘ and with this agenda the government has introduced scheme such as Mudra Yojna, Skill India, Start Up and Swachch Bharat Mission. In the end he said that the government is making relentless efforts to provide benefits to the deprive sections and move society toward social justice.
The two-day (November 16-17, 2019) International Seminar on ‘Social Justice Policies of Modi Government’ organized by Satyawati College (University Of Delhi), Dr. Ambedkar Chair in Social Justice (IIPA) and Centre For Policy Research and Governance and sponsored by IMPRESS-ICSSR, came to end after the certificate distribution ceremony.